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Polyphenols: What Are They and Their Health Benefits

Updated: May 27

Polyphenols are a category of naturally occurring compounds found in plants, recognised for their significant health benefits. These compounds are abundant in fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, chocolate and also in red wine. Over recent years, polyphenols have garnered attention for their potential role in promoting health and helping to prevent various diseases. In this article I delve into what polyphenols are and write about their numerous health benefits.

What are polyphenols, their health benefits and how to get them from food?

What Are Polyphenols?

Polyphenols are micronutrients packed with antioxidants, which help combat oxidative stress in the body. They are classified into several groups based on their chemical structure:

  • Flavonoids: Found in fruits, vegetables, tea, and wine. Examples include quercetin, kaempferol, and catechins.

  • Phenolic acids: Present in coffee, fruits, and whole grains. Common types include caffeic acid and ferulic acid.

  • Polyphenolic amides: Found in chili peppers and oats. Capsaicinoids are a primary example.

  • Stilbenes: Such as resveratrol in grapes, red wine, cranberries, blueberries cocoa

  • Ellagic acid: Found in berries, apples, grapes, pomegranate, walnuts, cashews, pecans, pistachios.

  • Lignans: Such as secoisolariciresinol, found for example in linseeds, carrots wholegrain rye and other grains

Health Benefits of Polyphenols

Polyphenols offer us a range of health benefits, supported by extensive research. Here are some of the key advantages:

1. Antioxidant Properties

Polyphenols are powerful antioxidants that protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. This oxidative stress is linked to chronic diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. By neutralising free radicals, polyphenols help maintain cellular health and prevent disease progression.

2. Anti-inflammatory Effects

Chronic inflammation is a precursor to many health issues, including arthritis, heart disease, and diabetes. Polyphenols exhibit strong anti-inflammatory properties, helping reduce inflammation and associated risks. For instance, flavonoids like quercetin have been shown to inhibit inflammatory pathways, providing relief from conditions like asthma and rheumatoid arthritis.

3. Cardiovascular Health

Polyphenols contribute significantly to heart health. They help improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, reduce LDL cholesterol levels, and increase HDL cholesterol levels. The flavonoids in dark chocolate and red wine, for example, have been linked to a reduced risk of heart disease.

4. Cancer Prevention

Several studies suggest that polyphenols possess anticancer properties. They help prevent cancer cell proliferation, induce apoptosis (programmed cell death), and inhibit tumor growth. Green tea polyphenols, particularly catechins, have shown promise in reducing the risk of various cancers, including breast and prostate cancer.

5. Brain Health

Polyphenols play a crucial role in maintaining brain health and cognitive function. They enhance memory, learning, and protect against neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. The antioxidants in polyphenols help reduce oxidative stress in the brain, thus preserving cognitive abilities with aging.

6. Gut Health

Polyphenols also benefit gut health by promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. They act as prebiotics, supporting the microbiome's balance and enhancing digestive health. Foods rich in polyphenols, such as berries and green tea, contribute to a healthier gut environment.

Sources of Polyphenols

To reap the health benefits of polyphenols, incorporate a variety of polyphenol-rich foods into your diet, for example but definitely not limited to below plant foods and beverages:

  • Fruits: Apples, grapes, cherries, berries, and citrus fruits

  • Vegetables: Spinach, onions, broccoli, and artichokes

  • Legumes: Beans and lentils

  • Nuts and seeds: Flaxseeds, walnuts, pecans and chestnuts

  • Dark chocolate: Opt for varieties with a high cocoa content (85% and higher cocoa)

  • Whole grains: Oats, wholegrain rye and wheat, and brown rice

  • Beverages: Green tea, black tea, moderate coffee, and occasional red wine

What is the polyphenol content in different fruits and berries?

Polyphenols are a vital component of a healthy diet, offering a multitude of health benefits ranging from antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects to heart, brain, and gut health. There is a reason, why it's recommended to consume a minimum of 30 different plant foods per week or have 80% of your diet plant based and 20% animal source based. By including a diverse array of polyphenol-rich foods in your daily diet, you can harness these powerful compounds to enhance your overall well-being and protect against chronic diseases. Prioritise natural sources of polyphenols to optimise your health and longevity.

If you are looking to improve your diet, but are not sure where to start, don't hesitate to reach out to me for health and nutrition coaching at


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