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How are vitamins and minerals absorbed in the body

Updated: Apr 15

It's often said that food is fuel, but the journey from the plate to energy production is a complex one. While the primary purpose of consuming food is to fuel our bodies, there's a lot more at play beneath the surface. Commonly known as vitamins and minerals, these microscopic compounds are essential for our well-being, and without them, our existence would be at risk.

Where are vitamins and minerals absorbed in the body?

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The Significance of Vitamins and Minerals

Discovered over a century ago, vitamins and minerals are crucial for normal bodily functions. With almost 30 identified micronutrients, each one plays a unique role, and a deficiency in any can have severe consequences. For instance, vitamin A deficiency can lead to blindness, while low iron levels can result in anemia and related complications.

The Role of Nutrients in the Body

In the modern era, access to nutrient-dense foods is in most countries abundant, and fortified products further supplement our diets. However, the absorption of these nutrients is equally critical. We are not only what we eat, but what we absorb. The digestive system, from the mouth to the large intestine, plays an important role in breaking down and absorbing essential components.

The Digestive Journey

The digestive process begins in the mouth, where food is broken down into smaller bits. As it travels through the digestive system, various enzymes and microbiomes work together to further break down nutrients. The small intestine is a major player in the absorption process, where most vitamins and minerals are absorbed. Understanding the differences between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins can help optimise absorption. In this blog post you can read in detail about the different vitamins and minerals and which foods contain them.

Where do nutrients get absorbed in human body?

The Small Intestine's Absorption Process

The small intestine consists of three sections – the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. This is where the majority of nutrient absorption occurs, and each micronutrient requires its own unique mechanism to cross the intestinal cell lining. Water-soluble vitamins rely on fluids for transport, while fat-soluble vitamins necessitate the presence of healthy fats for absorption.

The Large Intestine's Hidden Functions

While historically seen as primarily responsible for removing excess water and salts, the large intestine is now recognised for its diverse functions, especially its role in hosting the gut microbiome. Gut bacteria, predominantly colonising the colon, contribute to the breakdown of leftover food remnants, transforming them into additional sources of essential nutrients.

The Microbial Factor

Although not mandatory for nutrient absorption, gut bacteria play supporting roles that enhance the process. A healthy gut ecosystem contributes to the integrity of the intestinal lining and can even increase the levels of essential nutrients. For instance, certain gut bacteria produce a significant portion of our daily vitamin K requirement.

Reasons for Micronutrient Deficiencies

There can be several reasons why you may have nutritional deficiencies. It could simply be that your diet is not diverse enough or the diet is high in sugar and processed foods. It could also be if you are under a lot of stress, have a high toxic load, have poor blood sugar balance, low stomach acid or have a leaky gut, which all can contribute to nutritional deficiencies in your body.

In the intricate dance of digestion and nutrient absorption, understanding your body's unique needs is paramount. Factors like lifestyle, diet, and the health of your various microbiomes all contribute to the efficiency of this essential process. Recognising the gaps in your diet and adopting strategies to improve nutrient absorption is the first step toward achieving optimal health.

If you want to improve your diet and are not sure where to start, then don't hesitate to reach out to me for health and nutrition coaching at


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